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Operating System

Operating System

An operating system acts as an intermediary between the user of a computer and the computer hardware. An operating System (OS) is software that manages the computer hardware.

Components of a Computer System

Hardware It provides the basic computing resources for the system. It consists of CPU, memory and the input/output (I/O) devices.

Application Programs

Define the ways in which these resources are use to solve user's computing problems. e.g., word processors, spreadsheets, compilers and web browsers.

Functions of Operating System

Operating system provides many functions for ensuring the efficient operation of the system itself. Some functions are listed below.

Resource Allocation

Allocation of resources to the various processes is manged by operating system.

Accounting

Operating system may also be used to keep track of the various computer resources and how much and which users are using these resources.

Protection

Protection ensures that all access to the system resources is controlled. When several processes execute concurrently, it should not be possible for one process to interface with the other or with the operating system itself.

Operating System Services

Many services are provided by OS to the user's programs. Some of the OS services are listed below

Program Execution

The operating system helps to load a program into memory and run it.

I/O Operations

Each running programs may request for I/O opration and for efficiency and protection the users cannot control I/O devices directly.

Thus, the operating system must provide some means to do I/O operations.

File System Manipulation

Files are the most important part which is needed by programs to read and write the files and files may also be created and deleted by names or by the programs. The operating system is responsible for the file management.

Communications

Many times, one process needs to exchange information with another process, this exchange of information can takes place between the processes executing on the same computer or the exchange of information may occur between the process executing on the different computer systems, tied together by a computer network. All these thing are taken care by operating system.



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