The word "Ecology" is named by German biologist in 1869. The word comes from the Greek world "Oikos" (Ecos), which means "House". It can be thought of as the study of "nature's house keeping" Ecology is the fundamental concept of function ecology and looks at how man, animals, plants and other living things survive together.Ecology deals with the study of interaction between living orgenisms and the physical enviroment.It includes population and communities surrounded by and each influencing the other. It also examines how living things fit into the enviroment with their nonliving surroundings including air, water,soil and rock and how cope of with chaning condition such as weather, climate and seasons.A pond,a lake or a forest or a desert are the examples of Eco-system unit. An Eco-system is not a static system but but a constant state of change and equilibirum. The principal aspect of Eco-system is that it is capable of self-maintenance and self-regulations.

Human function and operation sometimes disturb Eco-system. Human intervention produces changes in Eco-system and as a result it becomes imbalanced. Since the industrial revolution, people have been aspiring and obtaining maxmium production from nature through intensive farming or through industriali- zation to get maximum output. This goal of maximum production often conflicts with balance in Eco-system.

Our country has variety of Eco-system.We have Eco-system like Indo-gangetic Plains which has high productivity potential. We have also desert type Eco-system which has very high tempera- ture and on the other way we have very low temperature Eco-system also (as in ladaki). Eco-system of the world are studied on the basis of their principal habitant.

Land-based Eco-system : Land Eco-system depend largely on the climate and soil. Large plants and animals have evolved on land. For example,seed plants, insects, warm-blooded vertebrates and micro-organisms dominate on Land.

Marine Eco-system : As ocean covers 70 percent of the Earth surface, originates innumerous plants (mainly algae), animals,zoo plankton, shrimps, fishes, reptiles,bords and mammals. They server as a link of a large quantity of sum off and wastes from land. Marine water contants higher percentage of salt and marine life is abundant near sea shore and in the continental shelf. Fresh water ecology mainly includes ponds, rivers and lakes.

Wetland Eco-system : Wetland are transitional land which inclunde valuable natural Eco-system where a wide variety of plants, animals, fisher and micro-organisms live together. They are at present in danger for including urbanization.

Mangroves : Mangroves are found in tidal zones of equatorial are tropical coasts (such as sunderban). In these zones important mangroves of many varieties plant grow in the tropical climate condition.

Forest Ecology : Forest covers a large area of the Earth's land. Plants in the forest have the unique art of manufacturing their own food through photosynthesis. The rest of the world also depend on them for their food and substance. Forests are renewal resources and they play a vital role in improving the quality of environment.Forests also contribute much to the economic development of a country.Forests dwelling tribes. They serve food, timeber, fruits,leaves and medical herbs ti them.


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